The Columbian Exchange: How the New World Affected the Old


By Katie Lloyd

When Columbus left to try and find an easier route to India, he would not accomplish his goal. But what he would do is set off a chain of events that would affect the entire world, from exchanging goods to beginning a precedent of brutality to Indigenous populations. Scholars posthumously call this interaction the Columbian Exchange and define it as the process of biological globalization that occurred after the transatlantic voyages in the 15th and 16th century (McNeill, 2021). 

Latin American and Caribbean countries: From Import-oriented substitution strategy to Export-oriented industrialization

April 17, 2020

The aftermath of World War II and the Great depression in Latin America and Caribbean countries (LAC’s) industrialization was marked by an import-oriented strategy (ISI). However, as the international market recovered, countries in the LAC adopted a process of liberalization, that was accompanied by the robust implementation of an export-oriented industrialization strategy or (EOI). Briefly, we explain the two strategies, Import-oriented industrialization (ISI) and Export-oriented industrialization (EOI) in Latin American and Caribbean countries.

What Argentina's Midterm Elections Mean for the Future of the Country: An Overview

November 1, 2017

On Sunday, October 22, 2017, President Mauricio Macri’s ‘Cambiemos’ (‘Let’s Change’) coalition declared victory in Argentina’s legislative midterm elections over its main opposition, former President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner’s ‘Unidad Ciudadana’ (‘Citizen Unity’) coalition.

Trade Policy Fuels Conflict in Peru

October 10, 2016

On 5 February 2015, some 200 employees of the mining company Yanacocha invaded the property of the Peruvian land rights defender Ms. Maxima de Chaupe. She has lived in an area known as Tragadero Grande, Cajamarca for over 20 years. In 2011 Yanacocha Mining Company, a Peruvian-American-World Bank transnational enterprise, attempted to buy the 49-year-old woman’s land and when she refused to sell it, a campaign of intimidation, violence, and judicial courts ensued.

North American Regional Security: A Trilateral Framework

October 5, 2016

Richard J. Kilroy, a professor of regional and analytical studies at the National Defense University, Abelardo Rodríguez Sumano, a professor of international studies and international security at the University of Guadalajara, and Todd S. Hataley, an adjunct professor at the Royal Military College of Canada and research fellow at the Centre for International and Defense Policy at Queen’s University, discuss the security relations between the United States, Canada, and Mexico in North American Regional Security: A Trilateral Framework.


Subscribe to RSS - trade