The history of the United States has often been plagued by abhorrent racism, founded in the importation of slaves and perpetually upheld by countless acts of violence, loaded remarks and disabling court determinations. On the other hand, Latin America and the Caribbean have received a cheery disposition as a welcoming nation of mixed ancestries, often cited for its blend of European and indigenous backgrounds.
A key indicator of ethnoracial income inequality is the difference in the probability of being poor between whites and non-whites. This probability is expressed as the percentage of individuals living below the poverty line. In Brazil, 5.2 percent of whites live below the extreme poverty line, while, for non-whites, that figure is 14.6 percent. In Bolivia, where 14.7 percent of whites live below the poverty line, the rate for non-whites is 31.5. In Guatemala, the rate for whites is 20.6, and the rate for non-whites is 46.6. To what extent does fiscal policy reduce this gap?
Over the last several years I’ve conducted extensive research in Brazil focused on the multiple and complex intersections of race, music, and space.