By the mid-1980s, many of the anti-communist military regimes that plagued the southern region of Latin American began to dwindle, allowing these nations to enter a stage of remission. But as part of the Latin American body was cured of the disease of political violence, others were newly exposed to the infectious disease. And this time, the other side attacked with a vengeance. In Peru, Maoist, Marxist, communist groups attacked the nation’s indigenous community leaving a path of devastating loss.
In 2008, Peru approached the International Court of Justice to rule on an unset maritime border with Chile. 38,000 square kilometers of ocean were under question, among this area some of the best fishing territories in the Pacific Ocean. Past agreements established that the border ran parallel to the equator. Peru, however, wanted it to be extended southwest to run perpendicular to the land border.
When I first arrived in Lima, one of the aspects of living in this hectic city that most frightened me was attempting to navigate the seemingly convoluted public transportation system. After a few days here, I quickly learned the correct terminology for each possible carro (vehicle) that could take me to my destination.
On September 22nd and 23rd, the United Nations held its first annual International Conference on Indigenous Villages. Indigenous representatives from around the world gathered in New York City to discuss indigenous rights in order to bring equality to a group of people that have been oppressed and discriminated against since colonization. The indigenous population of the world totals 370 million people, which constitutes 5% of the total world population and they represent about one third of people living in poverty.1
Peru is home to one of the most geographically and biologically diverse landscapes in South America. Coastal beaches, desert, mountains, and rainforest can all be found within this country’s borders. Due to this rich diversity, however, the different regions of Peru are slightly isolated from one another. These divisions have lead to various problems in the past, and continue to be an issue today, particularly for the environment.
Diverse studies observe that social conflicts and protests arise in areas where natural resource extraction occurs (Arellano-Yanguas 2011a, b). Recently, several intense localized protests have occurred at mining sites in almost all the democratic countries of Latin America (except in Paraguay); for instance, these social demonstrations have arisen in Peru (Conga), Chile (Mina Invierno), Argentina (Fanatina), Panama (Cerro Colorado), Uruguay (Aratirí), Costa Rica (Crucitas de Crutis), and Ecuador (Fruta del Norte).