Colombia

Violent Nonstate Actors and the Emergence of Hybrid Governance in South America

March 4, 2021
Traditional studies in international security have paid almost no attention to governance dynamics involving the extent of social violence and the new forms of governance generated by agents of violence, which are defined as Violent Non-State Actors (VNSAs). VNSAs can be defined as "relatively autonomous organizations (not under complete and direct state control) with significant and sustained coercive capabilities for organized violence.” In our work, we focus on a very specific kind of VNSA that uses violence as a tool to achieve their aims: organized crime. 
 

The Venezuelan Migrant and Refugee Crisis: Bringing Attention to the Displaced

Around 4.2 million refugees and migrants from Venezuela have left their country seeking asylum. They are fleeing from a crisis characterized by violence, human rights violations, corruption, hyperinflation, and poverty. Unlike other refugee crises, the one in Venezuela is not due to conventional war or conflict, yet the conditions people face are not too different from those in an active war zone. Despite the massive scale of displacement, the humanitarian crisis remains highly underfunded, and the international community is not giving it the attention it needs to ensure the protection and security of these refugees.

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