Speaking to a crowd in the southern state of Chiapas in February, a region with the largest indigenous population in Mexico, Pope Francis condemned what he called “the systemic and organized way your people have been misunderstood and excluded from society” (Puella and Bernstein, 2016). These misunderstandings and exclusion have created in Mexico a situation in which indigenous communities face significantly higher rates of poverty, a problem that impacts their overall quality of life and access to basic resources for 12.6 percent of the population.
By the end of 2012, Brazilian graduate education comprises 1,717 doctoral, 2,894 Academic Master's, and 395 Professional Master's programs. We see a basically continuous upward line regarding the number of doctoral, Master's, and Professional Master's programs. There are no breaks or shifts in this pattern that may be associated to political or institutional changes. We see no pattern breaks after 1985, when the military regime gave way to civilian governments.
The crowd of students and professors filled a street in Old San Juan, chanting, “¡Somos estudiantes, no somos criminales!” Puerto Rican police officers and a SWAT team made a barrier between the angry, yet peaceful crowd and the rest of the street leading to la Fortaleza, the governor’s mansion.
“No human being should eat from the garbage, but we, the street children, are barely human beings.”1 Joel is a 13-year-old boy who lives in the streets of La Paz, Bolivia. It is not uncommon for Joel and other street children to scour through dumpsters for scraps of food in order to survive. He believes that he and children like him represent the dregs of society, the “garbage.”
Are poverty alleviation programs short-term solutions or do they provide vulnerable individuals with opportunities to escape long-run deprivation? This policy question has been an ongoing source of debate between economists.1 For instance, Jeffrey Sachs has defended these programs, claiming that aid generates incentives for the poor to lift themselves out of poverty. William Easterly disagrees, arguing that aid creates dependency and that policymakers should instead focus on promoting economic growth.